What are the classifications of shock absorbers?


2022-03-03 14:13

From the perspective of producing damping materials, there are mainly two types of shock absorbers: hydraulic and pneumatic, and there is also a variable damping shock absorber.


Hydraulic shock absorbers are widely used in automobile suspension systems. The principle is that when the frame and the axle reciprocate relative to each other and the piston reciprocates in the cylinder barrel of the shock absorber, the oil in the shock absorber shell will repeatedly flow from the inner cavity through some narrow pores to the other. a cavity. At this time, the friction between the liquid and the inner wall and the internal friction of the liquid molecules form a damping force on the vibration.


The pneumatic shock absorber is a new type of shock absorber developed since the 1960s. Its structural feature is that a floating piston is installed at the lower part of the cylinder, and a closed air chamber formed at the end of the floating piston and the cylinder is filled with high-pressure nitrogen. A large-section O-ring is installed on the floating piston, which completely separates oil and gas. The working piston is equipped with a compression valve and an expansion valve that change the cross-sectional area of the channel with the speed of its movement. When the wheel jumps up and down, the working piston of the shock absorber reciprocates in the oil fluid, causing an oil pressure difference between the upper chamber and the lower chamber of the working piston, and the pressure oil pushes the compression valve and the expansion valve to flow back and forth. Because the valve produces a large damping force on the pressure oil, the vibration is attenuated.

Structural angle
The structure of the shock absorber is that the piston rod with the piston is inserted into the cylinder, and the cylinder is filled with oil. There is an orifice on the piston, so that the oil in the two spaces separated by the piston can complement each other. Damping is produced when viscous oil passes through the orifice, the smaller the orifice, the greater the damping force, and the greater the viscosity of the oil, the greater the damping force. If the size of the orifice remains the same, when the shock absorber works fast, excessive damping will affect the absorption of shock. Therefore, a disc-shaped leaf spring valve is set at the outlet of the orifice. When the pressure increases, the valve is pushed open, the opening of the orifice becomes larger, and the damping becomes smaller. Since the piston moves in both directions, leaf spring valves are installed on both sides of the piston, which are called compression valves and extension valves.

According to its structure, the shock absorber is divided into two types: single cylinder and double cylinder. It can be further divided into: 1. Single cylinder pneumatic shock absorber; 2. Double cylinder oil pressure shock absorber; 3. Double cylinder oil and gas shock absorber.

Double barrel

The shock absorber has two inner and outer cylinders. The piston moves in the inner cylinder. As the piston rod enters and withdraws, the volume of the oil in the inner cylinder increases and shrinks accordingly. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain the oil in the inner cylinder by exchanging with the outer cylinder. balance. Therefore, there must be four valves in the double cylinder shock absorber, that is, in addition to the two throttle valves on the piston mentioned above, there are also a flow valve and a compensation valve installed between the inner and outer cylinders to complete the exchange.


Compared with the double-tube type, the single-tube shock absorber has a simple structure and reduces a set of valve systems. It is equipped with a floating piston in the lower part of the cylinder, (the so-called floating means that there is no piston rod to control its movement), and a closed air chamber is formed under the floating piston, which is filled with high-pressure nitrogen. The above-mentioned change in the liquid level caused by the piston rod entering and exiting the oil is automatically adapted to it by the floating of the floating piston. In addition to the above two shock absorbers, there are resistance adjustable shock absorbers. It can change the size of the orifice through external operation. Recent cars use electronically controlled shock absorbers as standard equipment. Sensors detect the driving state, and the computer calculates the optimal damping force to make the damping force adjustment mechanism on the shock absorber work automatically.



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